Xifaniso xa lebakwini ra le Furhwa
Xifaniso xa Da Vinci
Xifaniso xa bronzi xa le Yoruba xa hosi yamu Ife

Matimu ya Misava inhlamuselo ya  Matimu ya vanhu hi kuya hi tidyondzo ta kucela tindzhawu ta khale kulanganisa na matsalwa lamahlayisiweke. Matimu ya khale ka khaleni masungula hi tsumbula ndlela yo tsala.[1][2] Hambiswiritano, timintsu ta nhluvuko tiente kuya endzhaku ngopfu kufikela eka thekinoloji ya khale na ndhzavuko wakona. nguva ya kusungula ka matimu yi sunguriwa eka "nguva yosungula ya Maribye" , leyi landzeriwaka hi "nguva ya vumbirhi ya maribye", naswona yihlanganisa na nguva ya vurimi (Exikarhi ka 8000 na 5000 BCE). Nguva leyi yitise ku cinca loku kulu eka matimu ya vanhu, hikuva vanhu va sungule ku khatalela no hlakulela swibyariwa (swimilana) na swiharhi.[3][4][5] Vurimi byi antswisiwile naswona leswi swi endle leswaku vanhu va cinca eka mahanyele ya ku valanga ku ya eka mahanyele ya vurimi naswona va tshama endhzawini yin'we. Kuvalanga kuyile emahlweni  e tindzhawini tin'wana ta misava ngopfu ngopfu etinzhawini leti tumbeleke naswona tirina swimilana switsongo leswi dyekaka;[6] kambe vusirheleleki na ntshovelo lowu tlakukeke wa vurimi swi endle leswaku mintlawa ya va akatiko va ndlandlamuxa miganga naswona va pfuniwak hi ku antswisiwa ka swa vutleketli.

Ku antswisiwa ka vurimi ku tise tindlela letinthswa ta ku hlayisa mavele na tinyunge tin'wana leti tisaka ntsovelo lowunene, naswona leswi swi endle leswaku nkavelo wa mintirho wu sunguriwa na ku hlayisa mavele exikarhi ka tinguva to byala. Nkavelo wa ntirho wu simeke swiyenge swa vanhu naswona wu tumbuluxa madorobha. Kurharhangana loku kulaka ka miganga ya vanhu ku tswale tindlela to tsala na tinhlayo.[7] Madorobha yotala masimekiwe emabuweni ya milambu; kusungula hi 3000 BCE tindhzawu to tshama leti sasekeke ti akiwile e tikweni ra Mesopotamiya,[8] e ribuweni ra nambu wa Nayli e Gibita,[9][10][11] ribuwa ra nambu wa Indusi ,[12][13][14] na milambu leyi kulu ya Chayina.[15][16][17]

Matimu ya misava ya khale (ngopfu ngopfu Yuropa na Meditera) ma hambanisiwa hi Matimu yaxikhale kufika eka 476 CE; "Malembe yale xikarhi"[18][19], kusukela eka lembe-xidzana ravunthlanu (5) kuya eka ravu khume na ntlhanu, kuhlanganisa na nguva ya nsuku ya vuIslamu (c. 750 CE – c. 1258 CE) ku hlanganisa na Malembe ya kupfuxelela ka Ithali (kusungula kwalomu ka 1300 CE);[20][21] nguva yo sungula,[22] kusukela eka lembe-xidzana ra vukhume nthlanu (15) kuya eka khume-nhungu (18), laha ku hlanganisiwa na nguva ya kuvoningeriwa, kusuka eka nguva ya tinkomponi kuta fika sweswi.

Exikarhi ka lembe-xidzana ra khume-nthlanu (15), kutsumburiwa ka vugandlisi bya tibuku,[23] ku hluvukise tindlela ko hundzisa marungula, naswona ku hetisa nguva ya malembe yale xikarhi ivi kusungula nguva ya migingiriko Sayensi.[24] Hikwalomu ka lembe-xidzana ra vu khume-nhungu (18), kuhlengeletiwa ka vutivi na thekinoloji, ngopfo ngopfu e Yuropa, swifikile e manembeleleni naswona swi sungula nguva ya tinkomponi.[25] Ehandle ka misava yakhale, kuhlanganisa na Chayina wakhale[26] na Indiya yakhale, matimu ya ololoke hi kuhambana lokukulu. Hambi swiritano, hi lembe-xidzana ra makhume-nhungu (18), matimu ya minhluvuko ya vanhu leyi hamba-hambaneke yisungule ke hlangana hikwalaho ka swamabindzu ya misava na vukolonyi. Eka kotara yo hetelela ya lembe-xidzana, kukula ka nhlayo ya vanhu, vutivi, thekinoloji, swamabindzu, Mathlarhi ya tinyimpi, na ku thyakisiwa ka mbangu ku ye mahlweni hirivilo lerikulu swonghasi.[27][28]

Hlaya nakambe leswi landzelakaEdit

Swikombisi swa lehandleEdit

TinotiEdit

  1. According to David Diringer ("Writing", Encyclopedia Americana, 1986 ed., vol. 29, p. 558), "Writing gives permanence to men's knowledge and enables them to communicate over great distances.
  2. Webster, H. (1921).
  3. Tudge, Colin (1998). Neanderthals, Bandits and Farmers: How Agriculture Really Began. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. ISBN 0-297-84258-7. 
  4. Bellwood, Peter. (2004).
  5. Cohen, Mark Nathan (1977) The Food Crisis in Prehistory: Overpopulation and the Origins of Agriculture, New Haven and London: Yale University Press.
  6. See Jared Diamond, Guns, Germs and Steel.
  7. Schmandt-Besserat, Denise (January–February 2002). "Signs of Life". Archaeology Odyssey: 6–7, 63. 
  8. McNeill, William H. (1999) [1967]. "In The Beginning". A World History (4th ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. p. 15. ISBN 0-19-511615-1. 
  9. Baines, John; Jaromir Malek (2000). The Cultural Atlas of Ancient Egypt (revised ed.). Facts on File. ISBN 0-8160-4036-2. 
  10. Bard, KA (1999). Encyclopedia of the Archaeology of Ancient Egypt. NY, NY: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-18589-0. 
  11. Grimal, Nicolas (1992). A History of Ancient Egypt. Blackwell Books. ISBN 0-631-19396-0. 
  12. Allchin, Raymond, ed. (1995). The Archaeology of Early Historic South Asia: The Emergence of Cities and States. New York: Cambridge University Press. 
  13. Chakrabarti, D. K. (2004). Indus Civilization Sites in India: New Discoveries. Mumbai: Marg Publications. ISBN 81-85026-63-7. 
  14. Dani, Ahmad Hasan; Mohen, J-P., eds. (1996). History of Humanity, Volume III, From the Third Millennium to the Seventh Century BC. New York/Paris: Routledge/UNESCO. ISBN 0-415-09306-6. 
  15. "The Ancient Dynasties". University of Maryland. Retrieved 12 January 2008. 
  16. Yun Kuen Lee, "Building the Chronology of Early Chinese History".
  17. "Internet Medieval Sourcebook Project". Fordham.edu. Retrieved 18 April 2009. 
  18. "The Online Reference Book of Medieval Studies". The-orb.net. Retrieved 18 April 2009. 
  19. Burckhardt, Jacob (1878), The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy, trans S.G.C Middlemore, republished in 1990 ISBN 0-14-044534-X Archived 21 September 2008 at the Wayback Machine.
  20. "''The Cambridge Modern History. Vol 1: The Renaissance (1902)". Uni-mannheim.de. Retrieved 18 April 2009. 
  21. Rice, Eugene, F., Jr. (1970). The Foundations of Early Modern Europe: 1460–1559. W.W. Norton & Co. 
  22. "What Did Gutenberg Invent?". BBC. Retrieved 20 May 2008. 
  23. Grant, Edward.
  24. More; Charles.
  25. "Ancient Asian World". Automaticfreeweb.com. Retrieved 18 April 2009. 
  26. British astrophysicist and Astronomer Royal Martin Rees says: "Throughout history our ancestors have confronted risks: pestilence, storms, earthquakes and human-induced disasters.
  27. "Climate change," writes Yale University economics professor William D. Nordhaus, "has become the premier environmental [problem] facing the globe.