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Swimilana swa tintshava ta Rwenzori, Uganda
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Vutomi ixihlawurisi exikarhi ka swivumbiwa leswi hanyaka na leswi feke. kuna mihlovo yo hambana-hambana ya vutomi, yin'wana yakona i swimilana, swiharhi na tibhaktheriya. Ntivo-vutomi (Biology) isayensi ya swivumbiwa leswi hanyaka.

Kutafikela na namunthla, van'wa sayensi na van'wa tifilosofi va swikuma switika ku nyikela nhlamuselo ya riviti "vutomi".[1] Swivumbiwa swikota kudya no gayela swakudya, swikota ku twa, swikota ku tswala, naswona swikota ku hluvuka swithlela swikota ko tolovela mbangu lowu switshamaka eka wona kuya hi kulandzelelana ka switukulwana. Kuna mixaka-xaka ya swivumbiwa laha emisaveni, naswona hinkwaswo swi yelana hi kuva na nkuma wa khaboni na mati ya miri.

Van'wa sayensi va ehleketa leswaku vutomi byingava byi sungurile kusuka eka swivumbiwa leswinga hanyiki. Vutomi byo sungula bya laha misaveni byi ngava byi sungule kwalomu ka 3.5 biliyoni wa malembe, loko misava yisungule ku vumba maribye kumbe sava leri omeke. Mihleketo yin'wana iya leswaku vutomi byingava byi sungule hikwalaho ka hlangana ka swiaki swavutomi kwalomu ka 4.1-4.4 biliyoni wa malembe lamahundzeke.[2][3][4][5][6] 

Ndlela leyi vutomi byingavaka byi tumbulixiwe hayona ayitiveki, hambi leswi kunga tala mavonele hi mhaka leyi. Kusukela loko vutomi byi tumbulukile, vutomi byi cinca-cincile kuya  hi mihlovo yo hambana-hambana. Hmabi leswi vutomi byi kumekaka himixaka yotala, kuringanyetiwa leswaka 99 wa tiphesenti ta swivumbiwa leswi hanyaka eka 5 biliyoni,[7] wa swivumbiwa leswi tshameke swi hanya laha misaveni, aswahari kona.[8][9] kuringanyetiwa leswaku kana kwalomu ka 10 kuya 14 wa timiliyoni taswivumbiwa leswi hanyaka.[10] Hambileswi vutomi byi vonakaka laha misaveni ntsena, vanhu votala va ehleketa leswaku kuna mihlovo ya swivumbiwa leswi hanyaka ehandle ka misa.[11][12]

Hlaya leswi engetelekekeEdit

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MintshahoEdit

  1. "What is life?". 
  2. Tenenbaum, David (14 October 2002). "When Did Life on Earth Begin? Ask a Rock". Astrobiology Magazine. Retrieved 13 April 2014. 
  3. Borenstein, Seth (19 October 2015). "Hints of life on what was thought to be desolate early Earth". Excite (Yonkers, NY: Mindspark Interactive Network). Associated Press. Retrieved 2015-10-20. 
  4. Bell, Elizabeth A.; Boehnike, Patrick; Harrison, T. Mark et al. (19 October 2015). "Potentially biogenic carbon preserved in a 4.1 billion-year-old zircon" (PDF). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Sciences) 112: 14518–21. ISSN 1091-6490. PMC 4664351. PMID 26483481. doi:10.1073/pnas.1517557112. Retrieved 2015-10-20. 
  5. Courtland, Rachel (2 July 2008). "Did newborn Earth harbour life?". New Scientist. Retrieved 13 April 2014. 
  6. Steenhuysen, Julie (20 May 2009). "Study turns back clock on origins of life on Earth". Reuters. Retrieved 13 April 2014. 
  7. Kunin, W.E.; Gaston, Kevin, eds. (31 December 1996). The Biology of Rarity: Causes and consequences of rare—common differences. ISBN 978-0-412-63380-5. Retrieved 26 May 2015. 
  8. Stearns, Beverly Peterson; Stearns, S. C.; Stearns, Stephen C. (2000). Watching, from the Edge of Extinction. Yale University Press. p. 1921. ISBN 978-0-300-08469-6. Retrieved 27 December 2014. 
  9. Novacek, Michael J. (8 November 2014). "Prehistory's Brilliant Future". New York Times. Retrieved 25 December 2014. 
  10. G. Miller; Scott Spoolman (2012). Environmental Science — Biodiversity Is a Crucial Part of the Earth's Natural Capital. Cengage Learning. p. 62. ISBN 1-133-70787-4. Retrieved 27 December 2014. 
  11. Race, Margaret S.; Randolph, Richard O. (2002). "The need for operating guidelines and a decision making framework applicable to the discovery of non-intelligent extraterrestrial life". Advances in Space Research 30 (6): 1583–1591. Bibcode:2002AdSpR..30.1583R. ISSN 0273-1177. doi:10.1016/S0273-1177(02)00478-7. "There is growing scientific confidence that the discovery of extraterrestrial life in some form is nearly inevitable" 
  12. Cantor, Matt (15 February 2009). "Alien Life 'Inevitable': Astronomer". newser. Archived from the original on 3 May 2013. Retrieved 3 May 2013. "Scientists now believe there could be as many habitable planets in the cosmos as there are stars, and that makes life's existence elsewhere "inevitable" over billions of years, says one."