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Mintsengo ya mintlawa ya Vanhu
Ntsengo wa vanhu 7.3  wa tibhiliyoni
Ntlimbano wa vanhu 12.7 per km² (4.9 mi²) kuya hi vundhzawu
43.6 per km² (16.8 mi²) ku ya tiko
Madorobha lamakulu ya Misava Beijing, Bogotá, Buenos Aires, Cairo, Delhi, Dhaka, Guangzhou, Istanbul, Jakarta, Karachi, Kinshasa, Kolkata, Lagos, Lima, London, Los Angeles, Manila, Mexico City, Moscow, Mumbai, New York City, Osaka, Paris, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Seoul, Shanghai, Shenzhen, Tehran, Tianjin, Tokyo, Wuhan
Tindimi leti vulavuriwaka hixitalo[1] Xichayina, Xipanichi, Xinghezi, Xihindi, Xi-Arabhu, Xiputukezi, Xibengali, Xirhaxiya, Xijapani, Xijavha, Xijarimani, Xilanda, Xitelugu, Ximarathi, Xitamili, Xifurhwa, Xiviyetinamu, Xikhoriya, Xi-Urdu, Xitariyani, Ximalaya, XiPerso, XiThekhi, Xipholixi, Xi-Oriya
Mintlawa leyi kulu yaVukhongeri[2] Vukreste, Vu-Islami, VuHindu, VuBhudha, VuSikhi, VuYuda, VuBhahayi
Wanuna na N'wansati vale Thayilandi

Vanhu vamanguva lawa (Homo sapiens) hikuya hi Sayensi imuxaka wa rhavi ra swiharhi ra Hominina (Vanhu), leri riyelanaka na ntlawa wa timfenhe. Riviti ra Xilatini, "homō" rivula "munhu" kumbe "munhu wa laha misaveni"[3] naswona "sapiens"  yivula "kuthlariha".[4]

Vanhu vahlawulekisiwa eka timfenhe hi mafambele na mayimele ya vona, kuhlanganisa na vuswikoti byo tirhisa mathulusi ku endla mintirho yo hambana hambana, naswona va na mabyongo lama kulukumba loko maringanisiwa na swiharhi.[5][6]

Swimunhwana swo sungula, hakanyingi a swi hlayiwi swiri vanhu —ngopfungopfu australopithecines, leswi a swiri namabyongo na kuakeka ka miri loku yelanaka na timfenhe.[7] Swotala eka swimunhwana leswi aswiiswikota ku tirhisa ndzilo, naswona aswi ake no tshama eka tindhzawu totala ta tiko-nkulu ra Yuraxiya, naswona hiswona swi tswaleke muxaka wa vanhu va manguva lawa (Homo sapiens) e Afrika kwalomu ka 200,000 wa malembe lamahundzeke.[8][9] Swisungule ku kombisa mahanyelo yohluvuka kwalomu ka 50,000 wa malembe lamahundzeke. Vanhu vamanguva lawa vasungule ku valanga na tiko nkulu ra Afrika ivi va hangalaka na misava hinkwayo.[10]

Kuhangalaka ka vanhu na ku andza ka nhlayo yavona  kavanyete mbangu na swimilana kuhlanganisa na swiharhi switala emisaveni. Ku humelala ka vanhu ku suka eka mabyongo ya vona lamakulu lama endleke leswaku vaswikota ku anakanya mianakanyo leyi rharhanganeke, tindzimi, kuthlanthla swiphiqo, ku vumba rixaka na ndhzavuko hi kuya hi ku ringisa van'wana. Vanhu vana switirhisiwa swotala leswi va switirhisaka kutlula swiharhi, naswona hi vona ntsena vakotaka ku tshivela ndzilo no sweka swakudya swa vona, nakambe hivona ntsena va ambalaka swi ambalo vathlela va tumbuluxa no tirhisa thekinoloji na vutshila.  

Vanhu vana vuswikoti lebyi kulu byo tirhisa mimfungo ku hundzisa marungula (tani hi ririmi na vutshila) leswaku vatiphofula na avelana miehleketo, naswona vathlela va ti hlawula hi swiyenge leswi ngana xikongomela xokarhi. Vanhu va tumbuluxe swiyimiso swa mahanyele leswi rharhanganeke leswi akiwaka hi mintlawa leyi tirhisanaka kumbe leyi luthanaka, kusukela eka ndyangu, vuxaka na politiki.[11]  kunavela vutivi na ku navela kutwisisa na hlohlotela mbangu naswona vathlela va navela ku kongomisa swiendlakalo, swi tumbuluxe vutivi bya Sayensi, Filosofi, swiyilana na man'wana marhavi ya vutivi.

Hambi leswi vutomi bya vanhu vo tala abyi titshega eka vuhloti na mintlawa ya vavalangi,[12]  nhlayo leyikulaka ya vanhu yi sungule to tihanyisa hi Vurimi na Swifuwo, kwalomu ka 10,000 wa malembe lamahundzeke,[13] naswova leswi va endle leswaku va kota ku simeka nhluvuko. Mintlawa leyi ya va aka tiko yi yemahlweni yi ndlandlamuka leswi endleke leswaku yi simeka mfumo, vukhongeri na ndhzavuko emisaveni hinkwayo, hiku endla tano swi hlanganisa vanhu hi miganga leswaku va aka matiko na mimfumo. Nhluvuko lowu tisiweke hi ta sayensi na vutshunguri eka malembe-xidzana ya khume-nkaye (19) na makume-mbirhi (20), swi tise tithekinoloji ta mafurha ya mimovha na ku antswisiwa ka swa tarihanyo, leswi endleke nhlayo ya vanhu yikula hirivilo leri kulu. Hi lembe ra 2014, nhlayo ya vanhu ya misava hikwayo ayi ringanisawa kwalomu ka 7.2 watibhiliyoni na kutlula.[14][15]

Leswinga ndzeni

MatimuEdit

Vona nakambeEdit

  • Human impact on the environment

Hlaya matsalwa lama engetelekekeEdit

  • Freeman, Scott; Jon C. Herron, Evolutionary Analysis (4th ed.) Pearson Education, Inc., 2007. ISBN 0-13-227584-8 pages 757–761.

Minkombo yale handleEdit

MintshahoEdit

  1. "Statistical Summaries". Ethnologue. Retrieved 2011-12-10. 
  2. "CIA – The World Factbook". Cia.gov. Retrieved 2011-12-10. 
  3. Porkorny (1959) s.v. "g'hðem" pp. 414–416; "Homo."
  4. "Homo sapiens Etymology". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 25 July 2015. 
  5. Goodman M, Tagle D, Fitch D, Bailey W, Czelusniak J, Koop B, Benson P, Slightom J (1990). "Primate evolution at the DNA level and a classification of hominoids". J Mol Evol 30 (3): 260–266. doi:10.1007/BF02099995. PMID 2109087. 
  6. "Hominidae Classification". Animal Diversity Web @ UMich. Retrieved 2006-09-25. 
  7. Tattersall Ian, Schwartz Jeffrey (2009). "Evolution of the Genus Homo". Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences 37: 67–92. doi:10.1146/annurev.earth.031208.100202. 
  8. Antón Susan C., Swisher Carl C., III; Swisher (2004). "Early Dispersals of homo from Africa". Annual Review of Anthropology 33: 271–296. doi:10.1146/annurev.anthro.33.070203.144024. 
  9. Trinkaus Erik (2005). "Early Modern Humans". Annual Review of Anthropology 34: 207–30. doi:10.1146/annurev.anthro.34.030905.154913. 
  10. McHenry, H.M (2009). "Human Evolution". In Michael Ruse & Joseph Travis. Evolution: The First Four Billion Years. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. p. 265. ISBN 978-0-674-03175-3. 
  11. Marshall T. Poe A History of Communications: Media and Society from the Evolution of Speech to the Internet.
  12. "Hunting and gathering culture".
  13. "Neolithic".
  14. "World Population Clock". Census.gov. United States Census Bureau, Population Division. Retrieved 2012-09-15. 
  15. Roberts, Sam (31 October 2011). "U.N. Reports 7 Billion Humans, but Others Don’t Count on It". The New York Times. Retrieved 2011-11-07.